Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Research Articles

Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Turkish-specific acromioclavicular score


Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Sarkışla State Hospital, Sivas, Turkey


Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Health Sciences University Gaziosmanpaşa Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey


Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumtology, Bursa Çekirge State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey


Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey


Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ahi Evran University, School of Medicine, Kırşehir, Turkey


Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Baltalimanı Bone and Joint Diseases Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey

AOTT 2021; 55: 406-409
DOI: 10.5152/j.aott.2021.20287
Read: 926 Downloads: 531 Published: 01 September 2021

Objective: The Specific Acromioclavicular Score (SACS) is a questionnaire that assesses functional outcomes for Acromioclavicular Joint (ACJ) pathologies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ease of use, reliability, and validity of the Turkish-translated and culturally adapted form of the SACS.

Methods: The SACSwas translated into Turkish according to Beaton’s recommendations. Seventy-eight patients were included in this study (67 with acute or chronic AC instability and 11 with symptomatic ACJ arthritis). The mean interval between test and retestwas 13.2 ± 4.6 days. The reliability of the tools was measured with the intraclass correlation coefficient. External validity was evaluated using correlations between the SACS,Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Shoulder score, and the SF-36 version 2 (SF-36v2). Floor and ceiling effects were also analyzed.

Results: The mean time to complete the Turkish SACS was 3 min 18 s (range, 1 min 40 s to 7 min 9 s). The test–retest reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.988). There was a very good correlation between SACS,OSS, SPADI, and ASES scores (r = 0.645, 0.645, and −0.682, respectively, P < 0.05). A poor correlationwas observed between SACS and subscales of SF-36v2 (P > 0.05). No floor or ceiling effects were detected.

Conclusion: The Turkish version of the SACS is a reliable and valid tool tomeasure outcomes after various types of acromioclavicular joint pathologies.

Level of Evidence: Level IV, Diagnostic Study

Cite this article as: Oğuzkaya S, Mısır A, Kızkapan TB, et al. Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Turkish-specific acromioclavicular score. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2021; 55(5): 406–409.

ISSN 1017-995X EISSN 2589-1294