Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Research Articles

Impact of surgery simulation using a 3-dimensional printed model on outcomes of hallux valgus surgery with distal chevron osteotomy: A randomized controlled trial

1.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Health Sciences, Izmir Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey

2.

Department of Anatomy, Digital Imaging and 3D Modelling Laboratory, Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey

3.

Department of Orthopaedics Surgery, Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey

AOTT 2024; 58: 95-101
DOI: 10.5152/j.aott.2024.23143
Read: 323 Downloads: 153 Published: 22 February 2024

Objective: This study aimed to compare the outcomes of traditional surgery (TS) with those of a 3-dimensional model-assisted surgery (3DS) in hallux valgus (HV) surgery with distal chevron osteotomy.

Methods: This randomized controlled trial study included 30 patients randomly grouped as TS and 3DS. In the 3DS group, the surgery was simulated on the 3D model before surgery, and that simulation was used as a guide during surgery. Various parameters, such as angles of the HV, intermetatarsal (IM), and distal metatarsal articular, were measured pre-surgery and during the final follow-up. The extent of lateralization of the first metatarsal (FM) head and plantar displacement of the FM head were assessed. Metrics like the duration of the osteotomy+lateralization+K wire fixation, tourniquet time, and fluoroscopy usage were recorded. All assessments were conducted independently and blindly. Patients remained unaware of their group allocation and the randomization procedure.

Results: Both groups showed no statistical differences in gender, operated side, age, or follow-up duration. For instance, in the 3DS group (n=15, age: 44.6 ± 9.6 years, male/female: 14/1, side right/left: 11/4, follow-up duration: 29.4 ± 8.7 months) and TS group (n=15, age: 44.8 ± 9.6 years, male/female: 13/2, side right/left: 10/5, follow-up duration: 28.8 ± 8.4 months). The 3DS group, however, showed better metrics with osteotomy+lateralization+K wire fixation, tourniquet duration, and number of fluoroscopies at 12.4 ± 1.2 minutes, 41.5 ± 3.8 minutes, 2.5 ± 0.6 times. In contrast, the TS group recorded 17.1 ± 1.5 minutes, 50.8 ± 3.4 minutes, and 3.3 ± 0.8 times, respectively (P < .001 for all). The 3DS group also achieved a more significant restoration of the IM angle (P < .001). Postsurgery, the 3DS group demonstrated superior outcomes in FM head lateralization, FM shortening, and plantar displacement (P < .001, P < .001 and P = .006, respectively, for all metrics). Only 1 patient in the 3DS group experienced a pin-tract infection, which was treated with wound care and oral antibiotics.

Conclusion: Simulating surgery on a 3D model and using it as a guide significantly enhances surgical outcomes. Benefits include reduced operation time, tourniquet duration, decreased fluoroscopy usage, and improved first-ray alignment. The 3DS method also ensures better lateralization of the first metatarsal head and correction of the IM. Although 3D model-assisted HV chevron osteotomy surgery provides ideal deformity correction, it does not significantly affect postoperative functional outcomes.

Level of Evidence: Level I, Therapeutic Study.

Cite this article as: Süer O, Özer MA, Govsa F, Öztürk AM, Aktuğlu SK. Impact of surgery simulation using a 3-dimensional printed model on outcomes of hallux valgus surgery with distal chevron osteotomy: A randomized controlled trial. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc., 2024;58(2):95-101.

Files
ISSN 1017-995X EISSN 2589-1294