Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Research Article

Vancomycin prophylaxis for revision hip arthroplasty in penicillin and cephalosporin sensitive patients: Is dose adjustment necessary in accordance with blood loss and fluid replacement?

1.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

2.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Missouri, USA

3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

AOTT 2021; 55: 53-56
DOI: 10.5152/j.aott.2021.20019
Read: 65 Downloads: 16 Published: 22 February 2021

Objective: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the changes in the serum concentration of prophylactically administrated vancomycin in the perioperative period of revision hip arthroplasty in penicillin/cephalosporin-allergic patients, (2) to assess whether the postoperative re-administration of vancomycin is needed, and (3) to determine the relationships of vancomycin serum concentration with blood loss, body weight, and fluid replacement in such patients.

Methods: This study consisted of 29 patients (20 females, 9 males; mean age=63.3 years; age range=45-79 years) with a history of penicillin/cephalosporin allergy undergoing revision hip arthroplasty secondary to aseptic loosening or periprosthetic fractures.  Serum vancomycin levels were measured (1) before administration of vancomycin, (2) at the time of skin incision, (3) every 1,5 hours thereafter until the end of the operation, (4) during the skin closure, and (5) after three and 12 hours from the initial dosage. Data regarding body weight, amounts of intraoperative blood loss, fluid and blood replacements and postoperative wound drainage were recorded.

Results: The average blood loss, fluid replacement, and drain volume were 1280.3±575.8 (500-2700) mL, 2922.6±768.8 (1700-4600) mL, and 480.2±163.7 (200-850) mL, respectively. The mean levels of serum vancomycin were 46.3±21.8 (14.1-80.7) mg/L at the time of skin incision, 17.9±4.7 (9.4-30.9) and 9.8±2.2 (4.3-13.8) mg/L after 1.5 and 3 hours from the beginning of the surgery and 5.1±1.1 (2.9-6.8)mg/L after 12th hour postoperatively. The measured vancomycin levels were below the effective serum concentrations (< 5 mg/L) for 18 patients at 12 hours the administration of the first dose.  A moderate level negative correlation between the blood loss/body weight ratio and vancomycin levels was found (p=0.004, r=-0.493).  Predictive ROC curve analysis resulted in determining a blood loss volume higher than 1150 ml and a blood loss/body weight ratio higher than 18,5 is significant to estimate the vancomycin level below the minimum effective serum level at 12th hour postoperatively (AUC=0.793±0.16, p=0.009, AUC=0.753) 26±0.12, p=0.025, respectively).

Conclusion: Evidence from this study has indicated vancomycin concentration at 12th hour is below the effective level in most patients. Thus, earlier repetitive infusion of vancomycin seems to be necessary in penicillin/cephalosporin-allergic patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty, especially in those with high blood loss.
Level of Evidence: Level III, Therapeutic Study

Cite this article as: Çağlar Ö, Kaymakoğlu M, Çil A, Atilla B, Sarıcaoğlu F, Tokgözoğlu M. Vancomycin prophylaxis for revision hip arthroplasty in penicillin and cephalosporin sensitive patients: Is dose adjustment necessary in accordance with blood loss and fluid replacement? Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2021; 55(1): 53-6.

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ISSN 1017-995X EISSN 2589-1294