Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Research Articles

Three different techniques for pelvic fixation in the management of neuromuscular scoliosis in nonambulatory spastic cerebral palsy: A comparative study of Galveston Rod, iliac screw, and sacroiliac screw

1.

Department of Orthopaedics, Nemours Children’s Health, Wilmington, Delaware, USA

AOTT 2022; 56: 372-376
DOI: 10.5152/j.aott.2022.22080
Read: 136 Downloads: 59 Published: 01 November 2022

Objective: This study aimed to compare the clinical and radiographic results of three different pelvic fixation techniques, i.e., Galveston Rod, Iliac Screw, and Sacroiliac Screw, in managing neuromuscular scoliosis in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP).

Methods: This retrospective study included nonambulatory children aged < 18 years with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to CP, undergoing a spinal fusion and pelvic fixation by either Galveston rod, iliac screw, or sacroiliac screw techniques. The primary outcome variable was to determine the stability of the major curve angle and pelvic obliquity over timeline intervals for each pelvic fixation technique. The two radiographic parameters were measured at five timeline intervals and were compared to define stability among the groups.

Results: One hundred and one patients (54 females [53%]) with spastic nonambulatory CP met the inclusion criteria; the mean age at surgery was 13.5±3.1 years. Mean follow-up intervals were first-year (12.9±1.5) and second-year (25.8±2.5). Forty-one patients had minimum five-year (81.5±23 months) postoperative follow-up. Groups were based on pelvic fixation techniques: 25 patients with the Galveston rod, 24 with the iliac screw, and 52 with the sacroiliac screw. Of the 41 patients with a minimum five-year follow-up, 10 had the Galveston rod, 11 had an iliac screw, and 20 had sacroiliac screw fixation. Gross Motor Function Classification System level, medical comorbidities, intrathecal baclofen pump, and vitamin D level were compared with each pelvic fixation technique (P > .05). Major curve angle parameters were measured at the five timelines as 70.5°±21.1°, 15.7°±13°, 15.7°±12°, 17.5°±12.7°, and 15.1°±9.6°, and pelvic obliquity as 14.8°±10.4°, 4.9°±4.2°, 5.7°±4.6°, 5°±4.4°, and 7.2°±4.4°, respectively. After the surgery, corrected major curve angle and pelvic obliquity showed no statistically significant difference between pelvic fixation techniques (P > .05) and remained stable over timeline intervals (P > .05). Fifteen patients had complications requiring additional surgery. The iliac screw group (nine patients) had the highest rate of complications.

Conclusion: All three pelvic fixation techniques can provide equivalent correction for major curve angle and pelvic obliquity in managing neuromuscular scoliosis in nonambulatory CP children. Pelvic obliquity after surgery may remain stable regardless of pelvic fixation type. A higher rate of postoperative complication can be encountered with the iliac screw.

Level of Evidence: Level III, Retrospective Study

Cite this article as: Ulusaloğlu AC, Asma A, Bowen JR, Shah SA. Three different techniques for pelvic fixation in the management of neuromuscular scoliosis in nonambulatory spastic cerebral palsy: a comparative study of Galveston Rod, iliac screw, and sacroiliac screw. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc., 2022;56(6):372-376.

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ISSN 1017-995X EISSN 2589-1294