Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Research Articles

The efficacy, safety, and cost-effectives of combined administration of Intravenous and Local Tranexamic Acid in the management of Patients Undergoing Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: A prospective, blinded and randomized clinical study

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Clinic of Knee and Sport Surgery, Private Ortopedia Hospital, Adana, Turkey

AOTT 2021; 55: 422-427
DOI: 10.5152/j.aott.2021.20397
Read: 321 Downloads: 94 Published: 14 September 2021

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of combined administration of intravenous and local tranexamic acid with those of either intravenous or local administrations in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Methods: This prospective, blinded, and randomized clinical study was performed on patients undergoing unilateral primary THA from September 2018 to December 2019. A total of 90 patients were included and prospectively allocated to one of three groups: the combined group (n= 30, 14 male, 16 female; mean age = 54.9 ± 12 years), intravenous (IV) group (n = 30, 13 male, 17 female; mean age = 54.9 ± 12.3 years), and local group (n = 30, 13 male, 17 female; 50.3 ± 12.3). Tranexamic acid was used systemically by IV application (15mg/kg) in IV group, locally in the surgical field (2g) in local group as well as combined systemic and local together in combined group. The amount of blood loss, number of erythrocyte suspension transfusion, and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were documented accordingly. The estimated mean tranexamic acid and erythrocyte suspensions cost, extra nurse care, monitoring and laboratory costs associated with blood transfusion, and total hospital costs were compared among groups.

Results: No differences existed in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after surgery among the groups. The combined group required fewer blood transfusion compared to the local and IV groups, and the total amount of ES was statistically significantly lower (P = 0.039) in the combined group. Although the medication cost was higher in the combined group than in the other groups (P < 0.001), combined group was more cost-effective (P < 0.001) when the total costs related to blood loss were evaluated. No occurrence of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism was found in the study.

Conclusion: Combined administration of IV and local tranexamic acid seems to be more effective in reducing the requirement and amount of blood transfusion without increasing the risk of thromboembolic complications in primary THA compared to IV or local administrations. Despite increasing the prophylaxis costs, combined administration of TXA can result in lower total hospitalization costs by decreasing blood loss and consequent treatment costs in primary THA.

Level of Evidence: Level I, Randomized Controlled Trial

Cite this article as: Örs Ç, Çaylak R. The efficacy, safety, and cost-effectives of combined administration of Intravenous and Local Tranexamic Acid in the management of Patients Undergoing Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: A prospective, blinded and randomized clinical study. [published online ahead of print, 2021 September 13]. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc; 10.5152/j.aott.2021.20397. 55(5): 422–427.

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