Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Research Articles

Safety and efficacy of tranexamic acid with epinephrine for prevention of blood loss following surgery for trochanteric femoral fractures

1.

Department of Osteopathy, the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China

2.

Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Seventh Hospital, Wenzhou, China

AOTT 2020; 54: 132-137
DOI: 10.5152/j.aott.2020.02.135
Read: 322 Downloads: 212 Published: 26 March 2020

Objective: This study aimed to determine whether the local administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) combined with diluted epinephrine (DEP) reduces blood loss and the need for transfusions compared with the administration of TXA alone following surgery for trochanteric femoral fractures.

Methods: Hundred patients were enrolled in this study. In the target group (TXA/DEP group: n=50; 19 men and 31 women, mean age 72.5±11.1 years), the surgical sites were injected with 35 mL normal saline mixed with 3 g of TXA with 0.2 mg of DEP at a 1:200,000 dilution (TXA/DEP) immediately after musculoaponeurotic closure. In the control group (TXA group: n=50; 22 men and 28 women; mean age: 70.5±12.2 years), the surgical site was injected with 35 mL normal saline containing 3 g of TXA alone. The main outcome measures were postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) levels, hematocrit, drainage volume, and total blood loss (TBL); the secondary measures included transfusion requirements and perioperative complications.

Results: The mean Hb levels among patients in theTXA/DEP group were significantly lower than among those in the TXA group, measured on postoperative day 1 at 101.0±14.1 g/L vs. 106.9±10.5 g/L and day 3 as 104.2±8.2 g/L vs. 108.5±9.1 g/L, respectively (p<0.05). Drainage volume from the surgical site and TBL measured on postoperative day 2 were also significantly reduced in the TXA/DEP group vs. the TXA group, measured at 71.4±26.0 mL vs. 82.5±24.6 mL and 343.6±148.0 mL vs. 419.6±165.4 mL, respectively (p<0.05). Furthermore, 11 patients (22%) from the TXA group and 15 (30%) from the TXA/DEP group received blood transfusions; the mean number of transfusion events (1.2±0.4 vs. 1.9±0.7) and the amount of blood transfused (1.7±0.5 Units vs. 2.9±1.0 Units) was also markedly reduced in the TXA/DEP group (p<0.05). Two cases in the TXA/DEP group and three in the TXA group were diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis, a difference that did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Local administration of TXA with DEP reduced blood loss and limited the need for blood transfusions after surgery for trochanteric femoral fracture without increasing the risk of perioperative complications. Our study indicates that the local administration of TXA/DEP is safe and more effective than the administration of TXA alone in treating trochanteric femoral fractures.

Level of Evidence: Level III, Therapeutic study

Cite this article as: Xu X, Xie L, Yu H, Hu Y. Safety and efficacy of tranexamic acid with epinephrine for prevention of blood loss following surgery for trochanteric femoral fractures. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2020; 54(2): 132-7.

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ISSN1017-995X EISSN 2589-1294