Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Research Articles

Intraoperative lateral wall breach simulation in the cadaveric spine and the impact of thread designs of screws on pullout strength in the osteoporotic thoracic vertebrae: A biomechanical study in human cadavers

1.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Istanbul Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

2.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Medicana Istanbul Bahçelievler Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

3.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Acıbadem MAA University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey

4.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey

5.

Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

AOTT 2024; 58: 57-61
DOI: 10.5152/j.aott.2024.22067
Read: 310 Downloads: 174 Published: 28 February 2024

Objective: This study aimed (1) to simulate pedicle screw pullout after intraoperative external wall perforation and (2) to assess restoration strength with different thread designs in the pedicle screw instrumentation for osteoporotic thoracic vertebrae.

Methods: Twenty fresh-frozen human cadaveric thoracic vertebra bodies were prepared and divided into 4 groups: group 1, 5.5 mm × 45 mm polyaxial single thread pedicle screws (PASTS); group 2, after wall injury 5.5 mm × 45 mm PASTS; group 3, 6.5 mm × 45 mm PASTS after wall injury; and group 4: 6.5 mm × 45 mm polyaxial mixed-threaded screws after wall injury. While group 1 was the control group, groups 2, 3, and 4 were used as study groups after the lateral wall breach. All prepared screw units were placed on a universal pullout measurement testing device.

Results: The mean bone mineral density for 20 thoracic vertebrae was 0.57 ± 0.12 g/cm2 (range 0.53-0.6 g/cm2 ). The mean pullout strength was 474.90 Newtons (N) for group 1, 412.85 N for group 2, 475.4 N for group 3, and 630.74N for group 4. The lateral wall breach caused a 14.1 % decrease in average pullout strength compared with the initial screw pullout. Mixed (double)-threaded screws increased pullout strength compared to 6.5 mm screws (P=.036)

Conclusion: Using a 1 mm thicker polyaxial pedicle screw or mixed (double)-threaded pedicle screw seems to increase pullout strength; however, this was statistically significant only for group 4. In the thoracic spine, the redirection possibility of the pedicle screw is limited, and augmentation with cement will not be appropriate due to the risk of wall injury-related leakage. Therefore, care should be taken to avoid violating the lateral cortex by using appropriate pedicle entry points and trajectories.

Cite this article as: Kaya O, Ozkunt O, Sungur M, Cakir MS, Baydogan M, Sariyilmaz K. Intraoperative lateral wall breach simulation in the cadaveric spine and the impact of thread designs of screws on pullout strength in the osteoporotic thoracic vertebrae: A biomechanical study in human cadavers. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc., 2024;58(1):57-61.

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ISSN 1017-995X EISSN 2589-1294