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Vol 52, No 6 (2018) Pages : 459- 463

Quantitative comparison of a laterally misplaced pedicle screw with a re-directed screw. How much pull-out strength is lost?

Murat KORKMAZ, Kerim SARIYILMAZ, Okan OZKUNT, Halil Can GEMALMAZ, Turgut AKGÜL, Mustafa SUNGUR, Fatih DİKİCİ, Murat BAYDOĞAN

Abstract
Objective
Redirecting of a laterally misplaced pedicle screw into the accurate position decreases the pull-out strength due to the reinsertion, lateral wall cortical perforation and widening of the pedicle hole. Thus, this biomechanical study was performed to quantitatively analyze the pullout strength of a redirected laterally misplaced pedicle screw into the accurate position.
Methods
Thirty pedicules of 15 bovine vertebrae were separated to 3 groups, according to the screw placement method: 1) standard flawless trajectory; 2) trajectory with lateral pedicle wall perforation; 3) trajectory with lateral wall perforation redirected to the standard trajectory. Samples were placed on a universal testing machine and pullout loads were measured. Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized within 95% confidence interval and p value <0.05 to test for the statistical significance.
Results
The mean pullout strength was 2891±654,2 N(1383-3814,5) in Group 1; 817,8±227,6 N(308,6-1144,9) in Group 2 and 2081,1±487,7 N(1583,5-2962,5) in Group 3. The results found out to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Inter-group comparisons revealed that lateral pedicle wall perforation significantly decreases the pullout strength (p<0.05) and redirection of the screw increases the strength (p<0.05), however it was still weaker than the screws with flawless standard trajectory but this was not statistically significant (p>0.05).
Conclusion
The results of this study confirm that pullout strength of pedicle screw decreases by approximately 71% when the lateral wall is perforated and decreases 28% after redirection to the accurate position.
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Keywords
Pedicle screw placement Lateral wall perforation Pull-out strength Free hand technique Biomechanics