Prevalence estimation and familial tendency of common forefoot deformities in Turkey: A survey of 2662 adults

Uğur ŞAYLI, Elif Çiğdem ALTUNOK, Melih GÜVEN, Budak AKMAN, Jnev BİROS, Ayşe ŞAYLI,


This survey was designed to evaluate the prevalence estimations of HV, bunionette, hammertoe as well as their relations to shoe wearing and also familial tendency, in Turkey.
Material and Methods
Two thousand six hundred sixty two volunteers (1615 females and 1047 males) with a mean age of 34.15 ± 14.23 (range; 18 to 96) years were asked to answer the predetermined questionnaire between January and June, 2016. Hallux valgus, hammertoe and bunionette images were provided as references and every adult participant without any known forefoot problems or past forefoot surgery history was asked to rate his/her foot and to respond the questions about family history and shoe wearing habits. Responses were statistically analyzed.
The prevalence estimations of hallux valgus, bunionette and hammertoe were calculated as 54.3%, 13.8% and 8.9% and positive family history rates were 53.2%, 61.2% and 56.1%, respectively. All three deformities were more common in females than in males (p < 0.001). Nonetheless the older age group reported significantly higher prevalence rates for only HV (p < 0.001). Likewise, among the three deformities, females reported a higher rate of positive family history only in HV compared to men (p < 0.001). Constricting shoe wear was found to affect HV incidence in women (p < 0.001) and bunionette incidence in both sexes (p < 0.01).
This study concludes that forefoot deformities are common with high familial tendency. Hence it is worthwhile to work on molecular genetics and this may enable the anticipation of forthcoming deformities in order to take early action in prevention, in nearly the half of the population.
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