The evaluation and management of rotational deformity in cerebral palsy

Muharrem Inan, Faik Altintas, Ilay Duru,


Rotational deformities are common lower extremity abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy, which include intoeing and outtoeing. Intoeing is caused by one of the three types of deformity: increased femoral anteversion, internal tibial torsion, and metatarsus varus, while out-toeing, the less common form, is caused by femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. An accurate diagnosis should be made with careful physical and radiographic examination.

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